This research project is based on Y-Chromosome Testing. The Y-Chromosome is unique to males, and is passed from father to son. Since most of the Y-Chromosome is passed without modification, it is a good test for genealogists to use in tracking male lineage.
Rather than attempting to reinvent the wheel, see the DNA 101 page on the Blair DNA Project for an excellent explanation of genetics and DNA, presented in layman's terms. They have an excellent description of interpreting DNA results on their DNA 102 page.
There is also a wealth of information on the FamilyTreeDNA web site, and in particular, the description of Y-Chromosome testing.
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